The redshift of distant quasars and other celestial objects may not reflect distance at all, and the Hubble law relating redshift to distance may be the result of the universe playing tricks on us. In this article we will show that quasars and other celestial objects with high redshifts may be simply optical illusions, caused by the gravitational effects of neutron stars. This results from an overlooked aspect of Einstein’s observation that the velocity of light passing through a strong gravitational field such as found near the surface of a neutron star is redshifted, and is the source of the observed redshifts of celestial objects and not distance.
Neutron stars are the result of a collapsed star. They are roughly the mass of the sun (1 to 3 Mo) but with a diameter approximately 12 miles. Due to the extremely small size, the gravitational field at the surface is roughly 200 billion times that on earth. This extreme gravitational field near the surface of a neutron star has very significant consequences.
It is well known that a light ray passing very near a neutron star (impact parameter less than 1 solar radius) is deflected by the gravitational field. This is illustrated below:
Figure 1 - Deflection of light by a Neutron star. The deflected light undergoes a reduction in luminosity and a reduction in velocity, interpreted as a redshift.
Light which is deflected by a large amount undergoes a transition. This transition consists of three parts:
· Deflection – The light ray will be deflected by the gravitational field of the neutron star. At a distance from the surface of about one solar radius this deflection is small, but at closer distances the deflection can be thirty degrees or more.
· Loss in luminosity – The ray of light, after being deflected by a large amount, loses luminosity. That is, it is not as bright as it was before being deflected.
· Velocity reduction – As predicted by Einstein and proven through experiments with the Shapiro effect, the velocity of a light ray passing through a strong gravitation field is reduced. For a light ray passing through the extremely strong gravitational field very near a neutron star, the velocity reduction is severe. When observed through our telescopes, this velocity reduction is seen as a loss of energy, resulting in a shift in the light toward the red portion of the spectrum. That is, light passing very close to a neutron star and deflected by its gravitational field is also redshifted! The amount of deflection, redshift and loss of luminosity decreases as the distance from the neutron star increases (impact parameter), and is essentially zero with an impact parameter equal to the radius of the sun. (See Appendix A)
However, what happens with a light ray passing very near a neutron star is extremely interesting. This is illustrated in the following figure:
Figure 2 Deflection of light from a bright distant star passing very close to a neutron star. Note that the resultant light path has reduced luminosity and is redshifted by a large amount.
It is important to note that such a large deflection, and resultant loss in luminosity and redshift, only occurs if the light path is very close to the neutron star and passing through its intense gravitational field. If it passes as much as 1 solar radius from the neutron star, the gravitational field would be similar to light grazing the sun, which would be nearly negligible.
But the most interesting feature is how this light path would be seen through a telescope. This is illustrated in the following figure:
Figure 3- When observed through a telescope, the deflected light path would appear to be a dim star with a high redshift -- a Quasar! It would appear to be a very faint object with high redshift, presumably at great distance, but it is an optical illusion.
The actual light path, with its reduced luminosity and large redshift, would appear to be a dim distant star with a high redshift—a quasar! It is actually an optical illusion!
Our current interpretation of what is seen through the telescope lens is a star-like object with a large redshift, interpreted with the Hubble law as being extremely distant. In fact, the redshift is a local function caused by the gravitational field of the deflecting neutron star, and has nothing at all to do with distance. In fact, there is not an object there at all! And because there are millions of neutron stars within our galaxy and many bright stars, the likelihood is that all quasars are optical illusions.
Some additional information may be useful. For one, the same situation would apply to less luminous stars, suggesting that there are many dimmer quasars in the cosmos, but too dim to be immediately observed. A second observation is that such geometry easily explains the observed proper motion of some quasars. Proper motion of either the originating star or deflecting neutron star would necessarily provide a false image which appears to have proper motion.
A third consideration is radio-emitting quasars. These would occur when the light path passes closest to the neutron star, where the velocity reduction of the light ray was highest, causing the light to be redshifted into the radio spectrum.
The 2011 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Saul Perlmutter at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Brian Schmidt at the Australian National Lab and Adam Reiss at Johns Hopkins University for their discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. The award was granted for their work in identifying several Type 1A supernovas which appeared to be more distant than they should have been based on their redshift and luminosity. Their appearance suggested that very high redshift Type 1A supernova were further than they should be, leading to the conclusion that the expansion of the universe was accelerating. The cause of this acceleration was attributed to something dubbed “dark energy”, which presumably comprises nearly 70% of the mass of the universe.
But the observations which led up to the conclusion that the expansion of the universe is accelerating can be explained in the same way as quasars can be explained—by the deflection of light from a supernova by a neutron star, as illustrated below:
Figure 4 -Illustrating how deflection of light from a supernova by a neutron star results in an optical illusion taken as a high-redshift supernova at a great distance.
Deflection of a Supernova image by a neutron star would result in an optical illusion of a faint supernova with very high redshift, which is the same as observed by the three Nobel laureates. Their interpretation is that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, and caused by the mysterious dark energy. The alternate explanation, illustrated above, does not require an acceleration of space, or dark energy. As Occam’s razor suggests, it is a much simpler solution to the observations.
It is well-known that most galaxies have large redshifts and are considered to be very distant. However, there is a group of galaxies called the Local Group who have essentially no redshifts and are considered quite nearby.
The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way, and comprises more than 54 galaxies, most of them dwarf galaxies. Its gravitational center is located somewhere between the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. The two most massive members of the group are the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. These two spiral galaxies each have a system of satellite galaxies.
The images of local galaxies, like stars and supernova, can be deflected by neutron stars. However, since they are area images instead of point images, some special considerations apply. The first is that various areas of the galaxy will be deflected by different amounts, based on how far the individual star images pass near the neutron star. The second factor, so far ignored in the previous sections, is that most neutron stars are rapidly rotating, and thus the gravitational field will be in flux and provide unpredictable results. The net effect would be that an original galactic image such as a spiral galaxy would be distorted after deflection and appear completely different. This is illustrated in the following figure:
Figure 5 - Deflection of the image of a local galaxy by a neutron star. The rotation of the neutron star gravitational field distorts the deflected image, which is an optical illusion. The deflection reduces the luminosity of the deflected image and creates a redshift.
Thus the image of a local galaxy, after being deflected by a neutron star, would appear quite different after the deflection, and would be quite dimmer and have a large redshift. The current interpretation would be a faint distant galaxy with large redshift. Instead it is simply an optical illusion.
It would appear that the images used by Hubble and others to establish a relationship between redshift and distance were most likely optical illusions as well. With deflection by a neutron star, there is a strong inverse correlation between luminosity and redshift, exactly as found by Hubble. Thus there is no reason to relate redshift to distance, effectively nullifying the Hubble Law and an expanding universe. And without an expanding universe, there is no reason to believe there was ever a Big Bang.
A review of proper motion of Milky Way stars and local galaxies finds that none exceed 500 km/sec. We may then assume that any celestial object with a velocity exceeding this amount (equivalent to z > .0017) is an optical illusion. Deflection of starlight, supernova and local galaxies by neutron stars can explain all of the high-redshift items observed in the heavens. Using redshift as a measure of distance is not justified.
The intense gravitational field near neutron stars is capable of creating optical illusions which appear to have large redshifts, but the redshift is solely a local phenomenon, totally unrelated to distance. We may summarize this article as follows:
· Quasars, Galaxies and Supernova with a redshift are optical illusions.
· Any celestial object with a redshift z > .0017 is an optical illusion.
· The Hubble law is not valid, and redshift of an object has nothing to do with distance.
· The Universe is not expanding and there never was a Big Bang
· The universe is not expanding or accelerating. There is no “Dark Energy”
· The Universe may be a far lonelier place than we currently think. It probably is not populated by billions of galaxies—perhaps just a few.
Comments are welcome Jerrold Thacker JThacker@msn.com www.DeceptiveUniverse.com www. JerroldThacker.com
 There is strong evidence that the velocity reduction is a function of the logarithm of the impact parameter, and thus the velocity reduction may extend well beyond a solar radius. See http://deceptiveuniverse.com/deflection-correction.htm